Afarinesh Strategies Part 21 – Choosing Headings – Part 2

Afarinesh Strategies Part 21 Choosing Headings Part 2

استراتژی و تکنیکهای سوالات

 Choosing Headings – Part 2

هدینگ در پاراگراف کل مطلب را در خود خلاصه میکند. برای پیدا کردن هدینگ مناسب پاراگراف را بخوانید و با توجه به مفهوم کلی هدینگ مربوط به آن پاراگراف را انتخاب کنید.


مفهوم کلی پاراگراف می تواند در جمله اول و یا آخر پاراگراف باشد.


.The following reading passage has four sections, A-D .Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet. There are more headings than sections so you will not use them all

A Daylight Saving Time-the practice of setting clocks ahead one hour every spring and back one hour every fall-has been in effect in the United States in one form or another since 1918. The establishment of this practice was based on the idea that a longer period of daylight in the evening would lead to reduced electricity consumption. The original Daylight Saving Time period was six months long. During the oil crisis of the 1970s,concerns about energy use motivated the U.S. Congress to lengthen that period to ten months in 1974 and eight months in 1975. The result was a saving of 10,000 barrels of oil a day. However, these changes also meant that people were getting up in the dark on autumn mornings. Therefore, in 1976 the country reverted to an earlier system of beginning Daylight Saving Time on the last Sunday in April. But, this was not the end of efforts to increase energy savings by extending the length of Daylight Saving Time. In 1986, the beginning date was moved to the first Sunday of April resulting in an estimated savings of 300,000 barrels of oil a year. In 2005, the U.S. Congress passed the Energy Policy Act, changing the beginning and end dates of Daylight Saving Time to the second Sunday in March and the first Sunday in November. This change, creating an almost eight-month long Daylight Saving Time period, has been in effect since 2007

B A study done by the U.S. Department of Tr ansportation in the 1970s showed that no matter how many months Daylight Saving Time lasts, energy use is reduced by about one percent for each day that it is in effect. This is because household energy use is directly related to the time that people go to bed, since people turn off lights, TVs, and other appliances at bedtime. Since household energy accounts for about 25 percent of the total energy use in the United States, this is significant. More recent studies have cast some doubt on the importance of energy savings stemming from Daylight Saving Time. Not ever yone is in agreement, however, and policies regarding Daylight Saving Time have not changed as a result

C Reduced energy use has been the major motive for the establishment and continuance of Daylight Saving Time. In addition to this, it has led to other positive results, as well, an important one being improved traffic safety. Several studies have shown a reduction of about one percent in traffic accidents and fatalities during Daylight Saving Time because it reduces the likelihood that people will be driving in the dark. Daylight Saving Time may make our streets safer in other ways, too. One study showed a thirteen percent reduction in violent crime during this time of year. There are also benefits to the retail economy as people are more likely to go out and shop during daylight hours

D But there are other sides to the story, centering on issues of convenience, economy, and safety. While some people find changing the clocks twice a year to be a nuisance, for businesses this can represent a significant expense. For many school children and for those who work early morning shifts, extended Daylight Saving Time means getting up in the dark during part of the year and being out on the streets when visibility is low. Nevertheless, the consensus seems to be that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. People in approximately seventy countries around the world use some form of the system


List of Headings

i – The Reasons Behind Daylight Saving Time ii – Effects on Energy Consumption iii – Negative Aspects iv – Energy Use in the Home v – The Expansion of Daylight Saving Time vi – Effects on Traffic Safety vii – Advantages of Daylight Saving Time viii – Daylight Saving Time Around the World

 …………………….  Paragraph A …………………….  Paragraph B …………………….  Paragraph C …………………….  Paragraph D


: Answers

v / ii / vii / iii

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